A Comprehensive Guide on Quadruple Marker Test in India
Labsadvisor.com brings you complete information on Quadruple Marker Test. The details of the test are covered under following topics:
- What is Quadruple Marker test?
- Why is it done?
- The science behind the test?
- When is Quadruple Marker Test done?
- Who should undergo Quadruple Marker Test?
- What is the Procedure of Quadruple Marker Test?
- Risks and side effects of Quadruple Marker Test
- What does the Result mean?
- What is the cost of Quadruple Marker Test?
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What is a Quadruple Marker test?
A Quadruple Marker test, also known as Quad screen, is a blood test done in second trimester of a woman’s pregnancy. Hence, it is also called as second trimester test. Blood is drawn from the expectant mother to check if there is an increased chance of her carrying a baby with certain genetic disorders.
Why is Quadruple Marker test done?
The Quadruple Marker screens for following anomalies:
- Neural Tube Defects:These are the birth defects of the spine, brain and spinal cord. They occur in the first month of the pregnancy often before the woman knows that she is pregnant. The two most common type of Neural tube defects are Spinal Bifida and Anencephaly. In spinal bifida the spinal column of the foetus does not close completely. This results in nerve damage which will lead to paralysis of the baby’s legs. In Anencephaly, the brain and the skull do not develop properly. Babies with anencephaly are usually stillborn or die shortly after birth.
- Down’s Syndrome: Down’s syndrome is a genetic condition caused due to chromosomal abnormality. It affects 1 in 700 babies. Children with down’s syndrome have a wide range of learning disabilities and various medical problems like heart disease, lung problems, bowel problems and sinus. Most of the people with down’s syndrome need long-term support. There is no cure to the disease although early intervention and support can improve lives significantly.
- Trisomy 18: Also called as turner’s syndrome, trisomy 18 is also caused by chromosomal mutation. Most of the babies with trisomy 18 die shortly after birth. Those who survive remain seriously ill and hardly make to their first birthday.
The science behind Quadruple Marker test
When a woman gets pregnant, certain substances are released in her blood by the placenta or foetus. By measuring the amount of these substances or markers the risk factor is calculated.The four markers tested in the Quadruple Marker test are:
- Alfa-Feto Protein (AFP) – AFP is substance produced by the liver of the foetus. The amount of AFP in the blood of a pregnant woman can help see whether the baby may have neural birth defect.It can also be used to screen for chromosomal defects like down’s syndrome and Trisomy 18. The AFP level also indicates if the baby has a congenital problem in which the intestine sticks out of belly wall. No AFP is generally found in the blood of a healthy man or a healthy non-pregnant woman. In pregnancy, the level of AFP gradually increases from the 14th week of pregnancy. It continues to rise till a month or two before delivery. AFP values are lower in case of Asian women as compared to African and white women.
The normal value of AFP is adjusted according to woman’s age, race, weight and diabetic condition.
High values of AFP means
- The woman has more than one baby i.e. multiple pregnancy
- Gestational age of the baby is wrong.
- The baby has neural tube defect.
- The baby’s intestine is out of the belly wall.
- The baby is not alive.
Low value of AFP means
- Gestational age is less than the estimated age.
- The baby has down’s syndrome
An ultrasound id usually done before Quad test to determine the gestation age and number of pregnancies. This is important to calculate the risk of birth defects.
- Human chorionic Gonadoprotein (HCG) – HCG is a hormone made by the placenta and released in mother’s blood and urine. The level of HCG rises exponentially after embryo implantation. It is maximum at 14th week of pregnancy and then decreases gradually. HCG helps in the development of the baby.
High value of HCG means
- Multiple pregnancy.
- Woman is further along in her pregnancy.
- Molar pregnancy.
Low values can indicate
- The gestational age is less than the estimated age.
- Ectopic pregnancy. It is a pregnancy in which the foetus develops outside the uterus.
- There is a possibility of a miscarriage.
- Estriol – Estriol is an estrogen produced by the placenta and by the liver of the foetus. Estriol can be found as early as 9th week of pregnancy. Its level keeps on rising until delivery. Abnormal level of Estriol means that the baby is likely to have chromosomal defects like downs syndrome and Trisomy 18.
- Inhibin A – It is a hormone made by the placenta. A normal result means that inhibin level is low or negative. If inhibin A level is high, then the baby has increased risk of down’s syndrome.
Who should undergo Quadruple Marker test?
All women in their second trimester should undergo the test once. This test is highly recommended for the women who
- Have missed the first trimester screening or dual marker test
- Are 35 or older
- Have family history of birth defects
- Have diabetes and are on insulin medication
- Had viral infection during pregnancy
- Have been exposed to radiation for long periods.
Get ₹200 voucher for your first medical test booking at LabsAdvisor.com.
What is the Procedure of Quadruple Marker test?
The Quadruple Marker test is usually done between 15th week and 20th week of pregnancy. The procedure involves drawing out blood from the expectant woman.
- A strap is tightly put around the upper arm.
- A site from where the blood will be drawn is cleaned with a cotton dipped in alcohol.
- A needle with a vial attached is injected in vein and blood is drawn.
- The vial with the blood sample is tightly closed and labelled.
- The site of the injection is pressed and a small bandage is put on it.
- The blood sample is sent to laboratory for testing.
Risks and Side Effects of Quadruple Marker Test
The Quadruple marker test is a simple blood test of the mother so it is not at all harmful for the baby. There are some chances of bruising at the site of needle injection but that heals quickly. If someone has bleeding or clotting problem, she should inform the doctor before the test.
What does the Result Mean?
Quadruple test is just a screening test and not a definitive diagnostic test. It only indicates that there is an increased risk of the baby to be born with neural defects or birth defects. Many women with abnormal results go on and deliver a healthy baby. Abnormal test should just be used as an indication for further diagnostic testing. These diagnostic test can be:
- High definition ultrasound examination to look for signs of birth defects or abnormalities in the developing baby.
- Amniocentesis – It involves withdrawing a sample of amniotic fluid for genetic and chromosome testing, and can definitively diagnose genetic and chromosomal problems in most fetuses. Amniocentesis carries a small risk of miscarriage.
What is the cost of Quadruple test?
For top metros in India, you can check the cost of quadruple marker test in the below table. You can click on the link of your city to book the test.
|Quadruple Marker Test in Indian Cities||LabsAdvisor.com Cost of Quadruple Marker Test||Market Price of Quadruple Marker Test|
|Quadruple Marker Test Cost in Delhi||₹ 1780||₹ 4600|
|Quadruple Marker Test Cost in Noida||₹ 1780||₹ 4600|
|Quadruple Marker Test Cost in Gurgaon||₹ 1780||₹ 4600|
|Quadruple Marker Test Cost in Mumbai||₹ 2000||₹ 2800|
|Quadruple Marker Test Cost in Hyderabad||₹ 2720||₹ 4000|
|Quadruple Marker Test Cost in Chennai||₹ 3690||₹ 4100|
|Quadruple Marker Test Cost in Bangalore||₹ 2800||₹ 4200|
How can I book Quadruple Marker test?
Please give us a call on 08882668822 to book your Quadruple Marker test in India. You can also download our Android App ‘LabsAdvisor’ from Google Play store to book the test online. If you want a call back, please fill out the form given at the start of the article.
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